During production, tailings ore has a different composition, specific gravity, concentration, particle size, and distribution. Tailings can be divided into coarse-particle tailings, medium-fine-particle tailings, and ultra-fine-particle tailings based on particle size. Tailings with different particle sizes require a different dry tailing process. Strive to reduce floor space and investment income as much as possible on the premise of improving the effect of dry drainage.
Dry discharge process of coarse-grained tailings
Coarse tailings slurry, solid particles d50>0.075mm, does not require high quality of recycled backwater, and its dry discharge process often adopts a two-stage concentration-dewatering scheme, namely cyclone + dewatering screen + thickener.
The beneficiation tailings are fed into the cyclone, the overflow of the cyclone is fed into the thickener, the overflow water of the thickener is returned to the production circulating water for reuse, the underflow and the concentrated underflow of the cyclone are fed into the dewatering screen and on the screen of the dewatering screen, The material contains 20%-25% water for dry discharge, and the under-sieve returns to the thickener.
The dry tailings discharge process uses a dewatering screen to dehydrate, reducing filter equipment, simple process, low equipment investment, continuous production operations, suitable for coarse-particle tailings without mud, and the final water content of the tailings is 12-15% .
Dry discharge process of medium and fine particle tailings
Medium and fine particle size tailings slurry, solid-phase particle d50=0.075-0.023mm, and its dry discharge process usually adopts two-stage concentration-segmented dewatering and filtration scheme, namely cyclone + dewatering screen + thickener + filter.
The tailings are fed into the cyclone and separated by gravity. The fine particles and water are fed into the thickener, and the clarified water from the thickener is returned to the production circulating water for reuse; the underflow of the cyclone is fed into the dewatering screen, and the overscreen of the dewatering screen contains water 20%-25% for dry discharge; the under-sieve is fed to the filter with the underflow of the concentrator. After the filter is separated, the filter cake contains 15%-20% water for dry discharge, and the filtered liquid and the cleaning water of the filter are returned for concentration The machine forms a closed loop.
In addition, when the tailings slurry solid particles d50≤0.038mm, the proportion is less than 80% and the mud content is small, vacuum filters or pressure filters are generally used, and when the proportion is greater than 80% or the mud content is large, the general Adopt plate and frame filter press.
The tailings dry discharge process uses a cyclone and a dewatering screen to sort and dehydrate coarse and heavy particles before dry discharge, which reduces the specifications of the thickener and the filter, and has a small footprint and low investment cost. The under-sieve of the dewatering screen is fed into the filter to ensure solid-liquid separation, which is convenient for all dry discharges, so as to realize the long-distance transportation of tailings.
The filter discharge and cleaning water return to the thickener, which not only ensures the content of solid particles in the reused water but also meets the quality of the production water. The final water content of the tailings can reach 9-12%.
Dry discharge process of superfine particle size tailings
Ultra-fine particle size tailings slurry, solid-phase particle d50≤0.023mm, and its dry discharge process usually adopts a two-stage concentration-filtration scheme, namely cyclone + thickener + filter.
The cyclone is used as a stage of thickening equipment. The tailings slurry is fed into the cyclone, the overflow of the cyclone is fed to the thickener, the underflow of the cyclone and the underflow of the thickener are combined to the filter, the overflow water and filtered water of the thickener Return to the production cycle water for reuse. After filtration, the filter cake contains 15-20% water and can be directly drained.
The dry tailings discharge process adopts the series thickening of cyclone and thickener, which makes full use of the different sedimentation speed between different particle size minerals, which not only improves the processing capacity of the thickener, avoids its overflow and muddy, but also obtains high Concentrated underflow, the processing capacity of the tailings dry drainage system can be significantly increased.
In the actual application of the concentrator, it is recommended to conduct tailings settlement and particle size analysis tests, specifically analyze the tailings particle size, concentration, composition, and mud content, and comprehensively consider the backwater quality requirements, tailings scale, investment budget, etc. to select the appropriate Tailings dry discharge process in the condition of the concentrator, tailor-made reasonable tailings dry discharge equipment.
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