Sulfide flotation is still the mainstream flotation process of copper oxide ore. oxidized copper ore generally has the characteristics of low grade, high oxidation rate, high binding rate, and easy sliming. Because the slime has prominent problems such as polluting the surface of minerals, reducing the minerals floatability, unnecessary consumption of reagents and making the flotation process difficult to control. The slurry pulp increases the difficulty of copper oxide flotation to a certain extent. It is difficult to efficiently recover complex copper oxide with a high oxidation rate by single flotation. To deal with slurry pulp refractory copper oxide, it is of great importance to develop reasonable reagent systems and improve the flotation environment.
In this study, an oxidized copper mine with a large mud content and high oxidation rate was taken as an example. The raw ore was deslimed by a hydrocyclone, and an in-depth experimental study on process optimization was carried out.
Mineral composition: copper minerals are mostly oxidized copper minerals, containing 3.82% copper, with an oxidation rate of more than 90%, followed by pseudomalachite, copper-rich cobalt hard manganese, and traces of natural copper, brass, and chalcocite. Gangue minerals include quartz and silicates such as chlorite and muscovite.
The experimental study is that the ore is a refractory copper oxide ore with a high oxidation rate and large mud content. There are many types of copper minerals, complex intercalation relationships, and large differences in floatability. The current process used is sulfide flotation, first floatation The distribution flotation process of easy-selection of oxidized copper ore and post-flotation of difficult-to-select oxidized copper ore, the comprehensive recovery rate of copper is basically about 78%, but due to the large mud content of the ore, the mud phenomenon is serious, and the traditional single flotation process is adopted. , There are problems such as difficult control of the technological process and large fluctuations in indicators. Therefore, it is decided to introduce the hydrocyclone desliming operation, carry out pre desliming treatment, and carry out the process optimization test of flotation after desliming, aiming to make efficient use of the refractory oxidized copper ore resources.
Desliming flotation test
The FX150 hydrocyclone used in the experiment was used for desliming. According to the combination of different overflow ports and grit ports of the hydrocyclone, the experiments with different discharge ratios were carried out to obtain different desliming yields. Refer to the direct flotation open circuit process and reagents of the original ore. According to the institutional conditions, the grit sorting test is carried out. Considering that the fine mud contains some fine-grained copper and cobalt minerals, which cannot be recovered by flotation, the fine mud can be used as the feedstock for hydrometallurgical operations. In the secondary desliming flotation test, the fine mud pulp is used as the product of the flotation process system. In this study, the comprehensive copper recovery of the process is investigated under different rates of fine sludge removal.
It can be seen from the test results that with the decrease of the discharge ratio, the sludge produced by the cyclone desliming gradually increases, and the sludge removal and flotation sludge phenomenon have been better alleviated. With the increase of the sludge rate, the grade of the copper concentrate gradually increases. However, as the sludge is removed, the amount of copper entering the flotation process also decreases. When the desliming rate is 9.42%, the operating recovery rate of copper is 84.47. %. Since then, as the desliming rate increases, the copper recovery rate gradually decreases. Therefore, it is appropriate to control the desliming rate to 9.42%. The copper metal distribution rate of the sludge at this time is 13.50%, and the copper metal distribution rate of the flotation system is 86.5% this time.
Flotation optimization test
After the pre desliming treatment, the flotation environment of the slurry pulp has changed to some extent, including some changes in process parameters such as the reagent system and the original process. When the slurry pulp rate is 9.42%, the flotation optimization test is carried out for the grit after removing the slime. The test direction is mainly from the aspects of reagent optimization in the roughing section and increasing the flotation concentration.
1) Refractory ore contains 3.82% copper, which is a refractory oxidized copper ore with a high oxidation rate and large mud content. There are many kinds of copper minerals, complex embedding relationships, and great differences in floatability. Malachite flotation may be solved by reducing the effect of argillaceous minerals.
2) The amount of sodium fluorosilicate, sodium sulfide, and collectors can be reduced greatly after the raw ore is pre-deslimed by the hydrocyclone, while simultaneously ensuring the recovery rate of the copper concentrate.
3) For the pre desliming flotation process, when the fine slurry pulp removal rate is 9.42%, the flotation copper comprehensive concentrate grade can be obtained at 27.16%. A copper leaching rate of 94.30% can be obtained from the removed fine sludge, the copper conversion rate of the whole process is 12.02%, so the copper recovery rate of the whole process is 85.46%. Compared with the direct flotation process of raw ore, the flotation copper integrated concentrate grade has increased by 3.88%. A recovery rate of 6.32% has been achieved using the combined process of pre desliming flotation and slurry pulp leaching.
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